Patrice Lumumba, 50 Years After His Assassination — Adam Hochschild in the NYT

An Assassination’s Long Shadow

Published: January 16, 2011, New York Times

San Francisco

Riccardo Vecchio

TODAY, millions of people on another continent are observing the 50th anniversary of an event few Americans remember, the assassination of Patrice Lumumba. A slight, goateed man with black, half-framed glasses, the 35-year-old Lumumba was the first democratically chosen leader of the vast country, nearly as large as the United States east of the Mississippi, now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo.

This treasure house of natural resources had been a colony of Belgium, which for decades had made no plans for independence. But after clashes with Congolese nationalists, the Belgians hastily arranged the first national election in 1960, and in June of that year King Baudouin arrived to formally give the territory its freedom.

“It is now up to you, gentlemen,” he arrogantly told Congolese dignitaries, “to show that you are worthy of our confidence.”

The Belgians, and their European and American fellow investors, expected to continue collecting profits from Congo’s factories, plantations and lucrative mines, which produced diamonds, gold, uranium, copper and more. But they had not planned on Lumumba.

A dramatic, angry speech he gave in reply to Baudouin brought Congolese legislators to their feet cheering, left the king startled and frowning and caught the world’s attention. Lumumba spoke forcefully of the violence and humiliations of colonialism, from the ruthless theft of African land to the way that French-speaking colonists talked to Africans as adults do to children, using the familiar “tu” instead of the formal “vous.” Political independence was not enough, he said; Africans had to also benefit from the great wealth in their soil.

With no experience of self-rule and an empty treasury, his huge country was soon in turmoil. After failing to get aid from the United States, Lumumba declared he would turn to the Soviet Union. Thousands of Belgian officials who lingered on did their best to sabotage things: their code word for Lumumba in military radio transmissions was “Satan.” Shortly after he took office as prime minister, the C.I.A., with White House approval, ordered his assassination and dispatched an undercover agent with poison.

The would-be poisoners could not get close enough to Lumumba to do the job, so instead the United States and Belgium covertly funneled cash and aid to rival politicians who seized power and arrested the prime minister. Fearful of revolt by Lumumba’s supporters if he died in their hands, the new Congolese leaders ordered him flown to the copper-rich Katanga region in the country’s south, whose secession Belgium had just helped orchestrate. There, on Jan. 17, 1961, after being beaten and tortured, he was shot. It was a chilling moment that set off street demonstrations in many countries.

As a college student traveling through Africa on summer break, I was in Léopoldville (today’s Kinshasa), Congo’s capital, for a few days some six months after Lumumba’s murder. There was an air of tension and gloom in the city, jeeps full of soldiers were on patrol, and the streets quickly emptied at night. Above all, I remember the triumphant, macho satisfaction with which two young American Embassy officials — much later identified as C.I.A. men — talked with me over drinks about the death of someone they regarded not as an elected leader but as an upstart enemy of the United States.

Some weeks before his death, Lumumba had briefly escaped from house arrest and, with a small group of supporters, tried to flee to the eastern Congo, where a counter-government of his sympathizers had formed. The travelers had to traverse the Sankuru River, after which friendly territory began. Lumumba and several companions crossed the river in a dugout canoe to commandeer a ferry to go back and fetch the rest of the group, including his wife and son.

But by the time they returned to the other bank, government troops pursuing them had arrived. According to one survivor, Lumumba’s famous eloquence almost persuaded the soldiers to let them go. Events like this are often burnished in retrospect, but however the encounter happened, Lumumba seems to have risked his life to try to rescue the others, and the episode has found its way into film and fiction.

His legend has only become deeper because there is painful newsreel footage of him in captivity, soon after this moment, bound tightly with rope and trying to retain his dignity while being roughed up by his guards.

Patrice Lumumba had only a few short months in office and we have no way of knowing what would have happened had he lived. Would he have stuck to his ideals or, like too many African independence leaders, abandoned them for the temptations of wealth and power? In any event, leading his nation to the full economic autonomy he dreamed of would have been an almost impossible task. The Western governments and corporations arrayed against him were too powerful, and the resources in his control too weak: at independence his new country had fewer than three dozen university graduates among a black population of more than 15 million, and only three of some 5,000 senior positions in the civil service were filled by Congolese.

A half-century later, we should surely look back on the death of Lumumba with shame, for we helped install the men who deposed and killed him. In the scholarly journal Intelligence and National Security, Stephen R. Weissman, a former staff director of the House Subcommittee on Africa, recently pointed out that Lumumba’s violent end foreshadowed today’s American practice of “extraordinary rendition.” The Congolese politicians who planned Lumumba’s murder checked all their major moves with their Belgian and American backers, and the local C.I.A. station chief made no objection when they told him they were going to turn Lumumba over — render him, in today’s parlance — to the breakaway government of Katanga, which, everyone knew, could be counted on to kill him.

Still more fateful was what was to come. Four years later, one of Lumumba’s captors, an army officer named Joseph Mobutu, again with enthusiastic American support, staged a coup and began a disastrous, 32-year dictatorship. Just as geopolitics and a thirst for oil have today brought us unsavory allies like Saudi Arabia, so the cold war and a similar lust for natural resources did then. Mobutu was showered with more than $1 billion in American aid and enthusiastically welcomed to the White House by a succession of presidents; George H. W. Bush called him “one of our most valued friends.”

This valued friend bled his country dry, amassed a fortune estimated at $4 billion, jetted the world by rented Concorde and bought himself an array of grand villas in Europe and multiple palaces and a yacht at home. He let public services shrivel to nothing and roads and railways be swallowed by the rain forest. By 1997, when he was overthrown and died, his country was in a state of wreckage from which it has not yet recovered.

Since that time the fatal combination of enormous natural riches and the dysfunctional government Mobutu left has ignited a long, multisided war that has killed huge numbers of Congolese or forced them from their homes. Many factors cause a war, of course, especially one as bewilderingly complex as this one. But when visiting eastern Congo some months ago, I could not help but think that one thread leading to the human suffering I saw begins with the assassination of Lumumba.

We will never know the full death toll of the current conflict, but many believe it to be in the millions. Some of that blood is on our hands. Both ordering the murders of apparent enemies and then embracing their enemies as “valued friends” come with profound, long-term consequences — a lesson worth pondering on this anniversary.

Adam Hochschild is the author of King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa and the forthcoming “To End All Wars: A Story of Loyalty and Rebellion, 1914-1918.”


2 Responses to “Patrice Lumumba, 50 Years After His Assassination — Adam Hochschild in the NYT”

  1. Lew Rosenbaum Says:

    Democracy Now January 17 interviews Adam Hochschild on Patrice Lumumba 50 years later:

  2. J.Mule Says:

    The situation in the DRcongo is one of the typical , traumatic,stressful example of how careless and destructive the greed will embank the western governments to focus much on the exploitation of resources of the country than the respect of the humanity. It’s seems worthy to see millions of people dying and be dreaded under enormous struggle if that will justify gain and profit.
    Who ever preaches the truth and stand against the malpractice which comes with the imperialism and dark well polished colonialism has to be wiped away.
    To be a well respected president by the international league , you need to abide by their rules ,offer more of your resources to multinational companies.
    Mobutu has ironically embarrassed the strategy and He was called one of the valuable friend.
    The western governments has now focused much of the genocide in Rwanda as a pretext to vanish the shameful ways of handling issues like that one they could’ve avoided, but some how millions of hutus who lost their lives in the forest of the Congo due to the after match of the genocide never been a prime concern. in fact no one says anything about it otherwise he is taken as not compassionate to the cause of genocides that i do condemn as well.
    Mandela is now a hero and well respected because he chose to establish peace and equality instead of the evil apartheid regime.
    I wonder how could he be treated by the European countries if he also acted like the colonialist ” chasing away the Boers and whoever is related to them?” can you let me know please?
    Who doesn’t know that Rwanda and Uganda has been the two pioneers in these atrocities in the Eastern of Congo! yet the western governments has kissed those two country and none of them has ever raised any mandate to stop any involvement in that country.
    The American government or any other country which has planted his company in Rwanda for the exploitation of the resources in the DRC has kept silence and pleases itself to see women raped every minutes in the name of the profit.
    Who cares?
    It’s time we also expose legal procedures which has brought several leaders to justice by ironically ignoring the real architect of the damages in most of the African countries.
    Lumumba was assassinated, nobody was brought to justice or any damages were payed. The kleptomaniac Mobutu was a valued friend of the Americans even if he was part of the assassination, he killed students, he could shot several people whenever there were involved in any manifestation against him just like in Syria today, he brought his country to a dramatic chaos and corruption. He was still treated as a hero by the American.
    It was clear that he was used by the CIA till to the point he was useless when he couldn’t stand against a killer prostate cancer.

    Adam is one of the rare human being i have witnessed to be able to expose the truth in it’s neutral way and let the world see the injustice which millions of African people are facing today due to the evil and dark attitude of the colonialist who never really cared about the humanity but instead enriching themselves and their countries where African still treated not good enough.
    I am reading King Leopold’s ghost and i am so moved by the details and a clear approach in the history of Congo.
    Thank you Adam H.

    This comes from someone who wish his parents could move out of the refugee camp and go back to Congo and live a peaceful life.
    We are tired.

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